Physignathus cocincinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019
This species occurs throughout Lao PDR, Cambodia and Viet Nam in appropriate habitat. It has been found throughout eastern Thailand from the Eastern Forest Complex south to the coast, but only in protected areas (M. Cota pers. comm. 2017), and is found in southern China, in the southwest part of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hekou in Yunnan. It is believed to have an area of occupancy below 500 km in China. It has been introduced to Taiwan (G. Norval, cited in Uetz 2017). It has been found from sea level up to 700 m asl (Stuart et al. 2006); Nguyen et al. (2018) report the species' presence in a section of stream with a maximum elevation of 770 m asl. Listed as Vulnerable on the basis that this species, while widespread, is subject to high rates of harvesting throughout most of its range. Harvesting takes place principally at a subsistence level for food, but the species is also heavily-exploited, especially in Viet Nam, for export to support the European pet trade; combined, this harvest targets animals at all life stages. Additionally, this species is a specialist in closed-canopy, lowland riparian forest, a habitat at particular risk from habitat conversion as well as one highly accessible to collectors. Rates of decline in Viet Nam were estimated at 20% in 10 years in 2007 (equating to a decline of more than 30% over a three generation period estimated at 18 years based on a generation length of six years) and there is no reason to expect that these have decreased; elsewhere there are localized reports of declines as great as 50% over a three generation period. The species occurs in protected areas throughout its range, but it is likely to be relatively secure only in Thailand, which represents its western range margin. Consequently rates of decline across the species' range as a whole are suspected to exceed 30% over the past three generations (with the caveat that this is a precautionary estimate and further research is needed to confirm this rate of decline), and the causes of decline are not reversible and have not ceased, nor are they likely to in the forseeable future. Due to the species' restricted distribution (with an area of occupancy thought to be below 500 km2), the species is thought likely to warrant a local listing of Endangered.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources